One of the most astonishing things for me about the Fabrice Muamba story is the amount of time they actually spent administering CPR and delivering repeated defibrillation. Although I work in the NHS, I don't work in the area of Emergency Medicine so don't know the ins and outs but had thought the average time spent on resuscitation was around 20 minutes, although am aware that paramedics have to continue CPR until they've got a body to the hospital. The fact that Muamba was given CPR for so long and, from what has been said in the media, not suffered the sort of brain damage I was certainly expecting makes me wonder what the future holds in this regard. A brief chat with one of the neurosurgeons at work confirmed that CPR is never usually carried out to this extent and that the "value" of Muamba would have played a large part in it continuing. The question now is, if Joe Bloggs arrests and after CPR has been administered for 20 minutes, how can a doctor turn to the NOK and say "if we continue, the brain will have been starved of oxygen for so long there will be permanent brain damage if the patient does survive" when the NOK can then point the finger in Muamba's direction? Are protocols (with the potential spectre of families suing medics for not continuing treatment) going to have to be rewritten? And if protocols are extended to allow more time, what are the chances that we will have an increase in patients that do survive, but are brain damaged and then need medical treatment for the rest of their lives?