Her two escorting destroyers were also both lost with extremely heavy loss of life. One of them was able to torpedo the two German battlecruisers and cause damage that would need dockyard repairs.
There should have been aircraft patrolling but it is not certain how much of a difference that would have made. The Swordfish could have attacked the two battlecruisers, but would hitting one or both of them be enough to make the Germans break off their attack?
30knots top speed for HMS Glorious Vs 31 knots for Scharnhorst & Gneisenau
So it comes down to gunnery skill and of course HMS Ardent & HMS Acasta protecting their carrier.