That T E Lawrence protest about Iraq governance

#1
Possibly one of the oldest newspaper "cut and pastes" yet to appear on arrse? As requested in another thread http://www.arrse.co.uk/cpgn/index.php?name=Forums&file=viewtopic&p=184005#184005

Col T E Lawrence of Arabia's protest in The Sunday Times more than eighty years ago about British administration in Mesopotamia. Strictly speaking the term "Mesopotamia" refers to the land between the Tigris and Euphrates, but he was writing about Iraq. Lawrence was one of the architects of the original policy on Iraq, but attacks its implementation. Obviously the parallels are not exact. This is probably one of the sources for growing comments from across the pond that Iraq is all the Brits' fault in the first place.

Source: http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1918p/mesopo.html
Link to Dec 04 American article "U.S. commanders turn to Lawrence for lessons in Iraq": http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/iraq/2002112517_lawrence08.html

22 August, 1920
A Report on Mesopotamia by T.E. Lawrence

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Ex.-Lieut.-Col. T.E. Lawrence,
The Sunday Times, 22 August 1920
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[Mr. Lawrence, whose organization and direction of the Hedjaz against the Turks was one of the outstanding romances of the war, has written this article at our request in order that the public may be fully informed of our Mesopotamian commitments.]

The people of England have been led in Mesopotamia into a trap from which it will be hard to escape with dignity and honour. They have been tricked into it by a steady withholding of information. The Baghdad communiques are belated, insincere, incomplete. Things have been far worse than we have been told, our administration more bloody and inefficient than the public knows. It is a disgrace to our imperial record, and may soon be too inflamed for any ordinary cure. We are to-day not far from a disaster.

The sins of commission are those of the British civil authorities in Mesopotamia (especially of three 'colonels') who were given a free hand by London. They are controlled from no Department of State, but from the empty space which divides the Foreign Office from te India Office. They availed themselves of the necessary discretion of war-time to carry over their dangerous independence into times of peace. They contest every suggestion of real self- government sent them from home. A recent proclamation about autonomy circulated with unction from Baghdad was drafted and published out there in a hurry, to forestall a more liberal statement in preparation in London, 'Self-determination papers' favourable to England were extorted in Mesopotamia in 1919 by official pressure, by aeroplane demonstrations, by deportations to India.

The Cabinet cannot disclaim all responsibility. They receive little more news than the public: they should have insisted on more, and better. they have sent draft after draft of reinforcements, without enquiry. When conditions became too bad to endure longer, they decided to send out as High commissioner the original author of the present system, with a conciliatory message to the Arabs that his heart and policy have completely changed.*

Yet our published policy has not changed, and does not need changing. It is that there has been a deplorable contrast between our profession and our practice. We said we went to Mesopotamia to defeat Turkey. We said we stayed to deliver the Arabs from the oppression of the Turkish Government, and to make available for the world its resources of corn and oil. We spent nearly a million men and nearly a thousand million of money to these ends. This year we are spending ninety-two thousand men and fifty millions of money on the same objects.

Our government is worse than the old Turkish system. They kept fourteen thousand local conscripts embodied, and killed a yearly average of two hundred Arabs in maintaining peace. We keep ninety thousand men, with aeroplanes, armoured cars, gunboats, and armoured trains. We have killed about ten thousand Arabs in this rising this summer. We cannot hope to maintain such an average: it is a poor country, sparsely peopled; but Abd el Hamid would applaud his masters, if he saw us working. We are told the object of the rising was political, we are not told what the local people want. It may be what the Cabinet has promised them. A Minister in the House of Lords said that we must have so many troops because the local people will not enlist. On Friday the Government announce the death of some local levies defending their British officers, and say that the services of these men have not yet been sufficiently recognized because they are too few (adding the characteristic Baghdad touch that they are men of bad character). There are seven thousand of them, just half the old Turkish force of occupation. Properly officered and distributed, they would relieve half our army there. Cromer controlled Egypt's six million people with five thousand British troops; Colonel Wilson fails to control Mesopotamia's three million people with ninety thousand troops.

We have not reached the limit of our military commitments. Four weeks ago the staff in Mesopotamia drew up a memorandum asking for four more divisions. I believe it was forwarded to the War Office, which has now sent three brigades from India. If the North-West Frontier cannot be further denuded, where is the balance to come from? Meanwhile, our unfortunate troops, Indian and British, under hard conditions of climate and supply, are policing an immense area, paying dearly every day in lives for the wilfully wrong policy of the civil administration in Baghdad. General Dyer was relieved of his command in India for a much smaller error, but the responsibility in this case is not on the Army, which has acted only at the request of the civil authorities. The War Office has made every effort to reduce our forces, but the decisions of the Cabinet have been against them.

The Government in Baghdad have been hanging Arabs in that town for political offences, which they call rebellion. The Arabs are not at war with us. Are these illegal executions to provoke the Arabs to reprisals on the three hundred British prisoners they hold? And, if so, is it that their punishment may be more severe, or is it to persuade our other troops to fight to the last?

We say we are in Mesopotamia to develop it for the benefit of the world. all experts say that the labour supply is the ruling factor in its development. How far will the killing of ten thousand villagers and townspeople this summer hinder the production of wheat, cotton, and oil? How long will we permit millions of pounds, thousands of Imperial troops, and tens of thousands of Arabs to be sacrificed on behalf of colonial administration which can benefit nobody but its administrators?

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*Sir Percy Cox was to return as High Commissioner in October, 1920 to form a provisional Government.
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#2
We should bear in mind that Lawrence was very bitter and disillusioned after the war at the way his Arab friends and supporters had been treated by the allies. Doubtless the conditions described existed but his interpretation and attribution might be a little bit askew.
 
#3
As much as I hate to admit it, we did indeed make our own bed, and now find that we are having to lie on the soggy patch.
Lawrences book "The seven pillars of wisdom" is well worth a read.
 
#4
OldRedCap said:
We should bear in mind that Lawrence was very bitter and disillusioned after the war at the way his Arab friends and supporters had been treated by the allies. Doubtless the conditions described existed but his interpretation and attribution might be a little bit askew.
or exactly on target
 
#5
RCS
or exactly on target
For sure. However, he was described as never being the same after he met the Turks; although some even decry that as fiction. The book by John Simpson Saddam's Wars has some useful notes about this stage of Iraqi evolution.
 
#6
Just reading his comments reminds me me so much of ourselves right now :roll:

Lied to by a coniving government, kept there for the pure greed of oil and viewed by much of the world as the lap-dog of the US.
 
#7
Thank you Hackle for the original post.
I too would be 'Bitter and Dissolustioned (Twisted)"
The sins of the father are now being visited on the great great grandchildren. The numbers dead came as quite shock to me, I have never read of the thousands involved.
The Brit need for a reliable source of oil was the main motive for the policy we inflicted. Much as I beleive that the US need for a secure source of mid east oil is behind the Bush Adventure.
Lack of forsight is common with politicians for who can predict the future.
To me the main question now is will Bush/Blur cut and run. If not then ten + more years and just what that may ignite is really beyond my best estimates.
john
 

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