Smoking increases risk of PTSD


I've put it here as it specifically mentions soldiers at risk. [sarcasm]However, lets hope that those debating whather large sums of money should be paid to police NI know about this and see how many increased their problem by being smokers[/sarcasm]

Nicotine users at risk for PTSD after trauma

Last Updated: 2005-11-07 16:00:32 -0400 (Reuters Health)

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A new study shows that individuals who are addicted to cigarettes are at heightened risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder after experiencing a traumatic event.

According to Dr. Karestan C. Koenen who led the study, nicotine dependence that exists prior to trauma exposure increases the risk of developing PTSD following trauma by two-fold.

It seems that having nicotine dependence "makes someone more vulnerable to developing PTSD," Koenen told Reuters Health.

This has implications for active duty soldiers because it suggests that soldiers who are nicotine dependent are at higher risk of PTSD after exposure to combat.

"Therefore," said Koenen, "it might be important for the military to conduct smoking cessation programs and anti-smoking programs with active duty soldiers. Soldiers with a history of nicotine dependence might warrant special attention if they are in combat situations."

Koenen, from the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston and colleagues report their work in the Archives of General Psychiatry this month.

Among a group of 6,744 pairs of male twins who served in the military during the Vietnam era, the prevalence of nicotine dependence was much higher in trauma-exposed veterans and those with PTSD -- 52 percent and 72 percent, respectively -- compared with veterans who were not exposed to trauma (41 percent).

Shared genetic factors explained most (63 percent) of the overlap between PTSD and nicotine dependence in the twins. "This implies that some of the same genes that influence risk for PTSD may influence risk for nicotine dependence and vice versa," Koenen said.

"This is biologically plausible," the researcher added, explaining that "nicotine stimulates some of the same neurobiological pathways implicated in PTSD and therefore could sensitize these pathways, so when someone is exposed to a trauma they are more likely to develop PTSD."

However, even after accounting for shared genetic risk factors, pre-existing nicotine dependence remained strongly associated with PTSD after trauma.

"If replicated, the findings suggest that trauma survivors who are nicotine dependent might be at high risk for developing PTSD and might warrant preventive intervention," Koenen said.

SOURCE: Archives of General Psychiatry, November 2005.
Typical of you. You sulked for a week and now you will not let this lie.

No wonder the military have such a poor record on the prevention and treatment of PTSD with idiots like you around.

You are a knob OldRedCap, pure and simple.


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