Seniority ??

Yes it is. In some cases it can be backdated to the date you pick up, you have to get the CO to sign that off (with Glasgow’s approval). Otherwise, from your substantive date
 
When you’re promoted without having to complete a CLM for substantive rank. LCpl, SSgt, WO1
 
Seniority isn't quite "effective date" - mostly it is, but it can also be backdated to before you picked up the rank; happens occasionally when the Army has decided it doesn't want to disadvantage people who have done a long course in something.

e.g. officers have age limits on certain ranks. Back in the days when lots of officers joined straight from school, the Army decided it didn't want to dissuade graduates from joining as officers. So, various games were played with seniority so that they didn't lose out on pay or rank over the medium-term; compared with their oppos who had spent three years getting muddy, rather than doing a BA in Medieval History (or Rocket Science, not all grads do Meeja Studies and Basketweaving). For a while, graduates did a shorter course (SGC rather than SMC) and were commissioned as Lt rather than 2Lt...

An example was TA officers who went through UOTC (minimum two-year, typically three-year course) rather than DETAPO (one year course). Both start training as officer cadets in (say) 1990. DETAPO bloke commissions as 2Lt in 1991; becomes Lt in 1993, seniority 1993. UOTC bloke commissions as 2Lt in 1993; becomes Lt in 1994, seniority 1993...
 
Seniority isn't quite "effective date" - mostly it is, but it can also be backdated to before you picked up the rank; happens occasionally when the Army has decided it doesn't want to disadvantage people who have done a long course in something.

e.g. officers have age limits on certain ranks. Back in the days when lots of officers joined straight from school, the Army decided it didn't want to dissuade graduates from joining as officers. So, various games were played with seniority so that they didn't lose out on pay or rank over the medium-term; compared with their oppos who had spent three years getting muddy, rather than doing a BA in Medieval History (or Rocket Science, not all grads do Meeja Studies and Basketweaving). For a while, graduates did a shorter course (SGC rather than SMC) and were commissioned as Lt rather than 2Lt...

An example was TA officers who went through UOTC (minimum two-year, typically three-year course) rather than DETAPO (one year course). Both start training as officer cadets in (say) 1990. DETAPO bloke commissions as 2Lt in 1991; becomes Lt in 1993, seniority 1993. UOTC bloke commissions as 2Lt in 1993; becomes Lt in 1994, seniority 1993...
also used with PQOs and possibly PQ ORs to recognise their relevant to role experience prior to joining ...
e.g. putting a health professional at their career point rank / seniority - i.e. the difference between someone who joins as a Nursing officer with 6 , 8, 10 years experience and additional qualifications vs their colleague who squeaks in with as little over the 2 years as the process allows
 

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