Yes, in some cases - try "edit" menu, then "preferences", and select "accessability" on the list on the left - tick the box next to "replace document colours" and you can change text and background there. Don't forget to change it back for other .pdfs, as it will remember this setting as default.
(I'm using Acrobat Reader DC 2015)
Update on this.
I didn't realise straight away, what I had was a document (in negative) scanned from a microfiche and then inserted into the pdf.
I converted it back to jpeg & then inverted it. Job jobbed.