Photos that make you think.

He would.
Actually the lecturer never blamed Churchill, nor the British. He never even blamed the Japanese. The causes of the famine to him were purely economic and that was the general belief among economists at the time.

There is a phrase used in economics, ceteris paribus, all other things remaining equal, which allows you to ignore the elephant in the room. It was things like this, along with the pro Exchange Rate Mechanism propaganda that was being pushed at us (despite the lessons of economic history being that fixed exchange rates never work), that led to me becoming extremely disillusioned with my choice of degree.


Book Reviewer
I'm old enough to remember steam engine drawn trains and love the sound and smells.

However do we have the required volumes and distribution means to keep them stocked with high quality coal? I'm guessing that water should not be such a problem although the water halts that were needed on the long distance routes must be long gone.

Edit to add - sat too long before hitting send :-( beaten to it by @ex_colonial
Still present and servicable in NI between Belfast and Portrush. At least at Ballymena. EDIT Used by the Railway Preservation people to run the Portrush Flyer.

Last edited:
The boat looks huge, it is, but not inside.
The streamlining over the pressure hull is substantially larger; the pressure hull itself is quite thick; and the lowest deck tends to be full of tanks and batteries.

ETA: the streamlining (called the casing in British service) is designed to make a modern submarine hydrodynamically efficient while submerged, whereas most WW1 and WW2 submarines were designed to run better on the surface. The pressure hull tends to be cylindrical, because it's the strongest shape for the task. The casing typically covers over ballast tanks - outside the pressure hull as full of water at depth - and the various suctions and other hull penetrations.

Submarines are fascinating beasties for the design alone!

FETA: anything you want to get at while dived has to be inside the pressure hull. This includes your fuel and fresh water! For some larger submarines (or very deep divers), the casing may cover multiple interconnected pressure hulls. The Russian Typhoons do this.
Last edited:

Latest Threads