"Nanotechnology" is a field of engineering that has to do with manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level. It apparently offers the prospect of increasing the force of chemical explosions by a factor of approximately one thousand. (Imagine a rifle grenade or a mortar bomb with one thousand times the power of its conventional equivalent.) The linked article discusses the use of very finely subdivided aluminum (nanoaluminum) as a solid accelerant. Because most of its atoms lie very close to the particle surface, at can oxidize more rapidly than ordinary combustibles. The article also says that it may be feasible to use nano-materials to initiate the chain reaction in fissile matter. Thus, it may be feasible to build nuclear bombs no larger than an ordinary briefcase. http://technologyreview.com/articles/05/01/wo/wo_gartner012105.asp I have read elsewhere that nano-technology may allow the creation of chemical warfare agents capable of permeating, and thus defeating, protective gear.