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Irish War of Independence centenary

tiger stacker

On ROPS
On ROPs
That explains why the KIA were all Constables from the mainland with only a few months service. Thanks.
You have to remember, demobilisation of the men coming home from France only started once the Germans actually signed the peace treaty on April 1919. Once the post war manning was freed up for work at home, did the appeal to get paid, follow simple orders and avoid having to sign on or struggle to find a peace time job apply. With the feelers for peace mentioned above, the active recruitment for those fallen or wounded, would continue until the handover of power to the Irish themselves.

That make sense or do you need it broken down a bit
 
24 October 1920

Four partially disguised policemen entered Thomas Egan’s pub and grocery shop near Athenry, Co. Galway and shot him dead. Mr Egan reportedly had no involvement in politics. Back a few months, local Land agent and former High Sheriff of Galway Frank Shawe-Taylor was shot dead near Egan's pub. The Egan killing was presumably delayed retaliation.

In Co. Tipperary, Michael Ryan of Curraghduff and Willie Gleeson of Moher, were shot dead by men believed to be members of the RIC. Margaret Ryan, sister of Michael Ryan, said that her brother’s killers spoke with Irish accents. Willie Gleeson was 15 years old, and the men were looking for his brother, who was in the IRA.
 
25 October 1920

Terence MacSwiney, Lord Mayor of Cork and Commandant of 1st Cork Brigade, died on hunger strike in Brixton Prison. MacSwiney had been on hunger strike since 12th August. His hunger strike, death and funeral received world-wide publicity. MacSwiney was replaced by Sean O'Hegarty as O/C 1st Cork Brigade.

Joe Murphy a Volunteer in 2nd Battalion, 1st Cork Brigade died on hunger strike in Cork Prison. After the deaths of Murphy and MacSwiney the policy of hunger striking was suspended.

The IRA raided the RIC barracks at Tempo, Co. Fermanagh with the help of RIC men including Constable Hugh O’Donnell. The raid was planned by Bernard Conway, himself an ex-RIC man. Conway persuaded Constable O’Donnell to help in the plan. An RIC patrol from Tempo Barracks was captured and held while the raid took placed. The IRA then entered the barracks by an open back door. Sgt Wilfred Lucas was shot at this point, the gunshot alerting Loyalists in the local parish hall who were armed and came to the assistance of the police. The attackers withdrew with only a few rifles from the barracks.

Subsequently, a local Republican named Philip Breen was shot and killed in the doorway of his family’s public house. It was assumed that he was killed by either the RIC or UVF.

Sergeant Lucas was fatally wounded and died on 4th November, aged 45. He was a native of Ballygawley, Co Tyrone.

At Moneygold, eight miles from Sligo Town, an IRA party of about 40 men ambushed a nine-man RIC patrol, killing four men and wounding Constables Clarke and O’Rourke.

Those KIA were;

Sergeant Patrick Perry, age 51 from Ballivor, Co Meath.

Constable Patrick Keown, age 25 from Ederney, Co Fermanagh.

Constable Patrick Laffey, age 41 from Headford, Co Galway.

Constable Patrick Lynch, age 33from Bailieborough, Co Cavan.

The ambush was led by Sligo Brigade O/C Liam Pilkington There were no immediate reprisals but a few days later Auxiliaries arrived in the area. They burned a Sinn Féin hall and at least 12 houses, a pub, a shop and Ballintrillick creamery.
 
You have to remember, demobilisation of the men coming home from France only started once the Germans actually signed the peace treaty on April 1919. Once the post war manning was freed up for work at home, did the appeal to get paid, follow simple orders and avoid having to sign on or struggle to find a peace time job apply. With the feelers for peace mentioned above, the active recruitment for those fallen or wounded, would continue until the handover of power to the Irish themselves.

That make sense or do you need it broken down a bit
Hence why the official Great War medal dates the war as being from 1914 until 1919. Although the armistice was agreed in November 1918 the war did not end until 1919.
 
Hence why the official Great War medal dates the war as being from 1914 until 1919. Although the armistice was agreed in November 1918 the war did not end until 1919.

Incorrect.

The British Victory Medal (VM) has the dates 1914-1919 to recognise that RN were involved in demining after 11 Nov 1918.

The VM was not awarded for Home Service (HS) (and Ireland was regarded as HS) other than for RFC/RAF aircrew involved in the air defence of GB and/or ferrying aircraft to France:


The British War Medal (BWM) carries the dates 1914-1918. It could be awarded singly but only for RN serving in Home waters and for certain units serving in India and other areas: it was also awarded to RFC/RAF as stated above:


Due to UK operations in Russia (1918-1920) both of the above had their qualifying dates extended to cover that period.


Service in Ireland, during this period, attracted no medallic recognition. Those serviceman that died during that period would have that service acknowledged with the Memorial Plaque (the 'Death Penny'), which was sent to next of kin:

 
Service in Ireland, during this period, attracted no medallic recognition. Those serviceman that died during that period would have that service acknowledged with the Memorial Plaque (the 'Death Penny'), which was sent to next of kin:

Interesting that you say that as following the link on Lt. Dixon provided by Gary above William Alfred Dixon Dixon's widow asked that her husband's name be included on the Dover War Memorial but this was rejected on the grounds that although he served in the Great War and certainly was killed in service, service in Ireland did not count, correctly, as part of service in the Great War.

It seems odd though that service in Russia would have been included as Great War service.
 
Interesting that you say that as following the link on Lt. Dixon provided by Gary above William Alfred Dixon Dixon's widow asked that her husband's name be included on the Dover War Memorial but this was rejected on the grounds that although he served in the Great War and certainly was killed in service, service in Ireland did not count, correctly, as part of service in the Great War.

It seems odd though that service in Russia would have been included as Great War service.
And Irish War of Independence deaths are covered by the CWGC.
 
Hence why the official Great War medal dates the war as being from 1914 until 1919. Although the armistice was agreed in November 1918 the war did not end until 1919.
Legally speaking The Great War ended on 31 August 1921.


Interesting that you say that as following the link on Lt. Dixon provided by Gary above William Alfred Dixon Dixon's widow asked that her husband's name be included on the Dover War Memorial but this was rejected on the grounds that although he served in the Great War and certainly was killed in service, service in Ireland did not count, correctly, as part of service in the Great War.

It seems odd though that service in Russia would have been included as Great War service.
Based on the above the Dover War Memorial Committee were wrong in their rejection of Mrs Dixon's request.
And Irish War of Independence deaths are covered by the CWGC.
Military ones are but not Police deaths.
 
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The view from Canada;


And the Vatican's reaction to the Hunger Strikes

 
27 October 1920

The body of Captain Parcell Bowen, MC, DFC and Bar, Royal Air Force was found in Merrion Street, Dublin.

Parcell Rees Bowen, M.C., D.F.C. & Bar, Captain, 5th Welsh and Royal Air Force

In disturbances in the Short Strand area of Belfast, Joseph McLeod, a Protestant, was shot in the head by a Catholic gunman. He died from his wounds.

John Sherlock, a member of the IRA in Co. Dublin, was taken from his home by the Black and Tans and shot dead in a field. Sherlock had fought under Thomas Ashe at Ashbourne during the Easter Rising.
scanlan.jpg
Michael Scanlon, O/C 1st Battalion, East Limerick Brigade was shot while trying to escape in Limerick. It seems that Scanlon was actually trying to escape when he was shot.

Kevin Barry was informed that he will be hanged the following Monday, 1st November. The Governor of Mountjoy Prison received an order from General Macready telling him to carry out the sentence.
 
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28 October 1920

The newly-formed Flying Column of the South Tipperary Brigade, commanded by Dinny Lacey, ambushed a lorry at Thomastown, Co. Tipperary. They were expecting an RIC tender but hit a military lorry of the Northhamptonshire Regiment travelling from Templemore to Tipperary. Three soldiers were killed and five wounded- Lt.J.Parker-RE and from the 1st Northamptonshires Pte A.Needle, Pte W.Hart and Pte H.Sturkins. One IRA man, Michael Fitzgerald was also wounded. Participants included Paddy Horan, Jim Gorman, Brian Shanahan, Jack Tierney, Jim Bishop and Rody Hanley,

KIA
5875693 Private T Crummey, 1st Bn, Northamptonshire Regiment. Crummey was buried in Tipperary and, given his name, I’d always assumed he was English but, according to the Cairo Gang website, he was from Nenagh and had joined the Northamptons within the previous 12 months. His death registration entry gives his name as Patrick Crummy

5875693 Private T Crummey - 1st Bn. Northamptonshire Regiment

5876915 Private Frank Short, 1st Bn, Northamptonshire Regiment. Death registered as John Short.

5876915 Private FA Short 1st Bn. Northamptonshire Regiment

1852907 L/Cpl William Hobbs, Royal Engineers

Lance Corporal William Henry Hobbs, 1852907. Est. for Engr. Services, C.R.E. (Cork) Royal Engineers


Thomastown Ambush

3044595 Private George Robertson, 2nd Bn, Royal Scots was picked up by the IRA in Co. Clare, having seemingly deserted along with Lance-Corporal Alexander McPearson or McPherson. McPearson had shot a man dead during a house search the previous week but managed to escape from the IRA. Robertson was less lucky and appears to have died a nasty death. His body has yet to be recovered and he is commemorated on the Brookwood Memorial.

Private George Robertson, 3044595, 2nd Bn. Royal Scots

Men of 6th Battalion, East Clare Brigade executed a man named Martin Counihan as a spy near Feakle. Four houses in the area were burnt in reprisals.
 

sirbhp

LE
Book Reviewer
Does anyone know if irish war records are on the internet or some sort of Ancestory software ??
 
Does anyone know if irish war records are on the internet or some sort of Ancestory software ??

There are witness statements collected by the Bureau of Military History on-line.

I've never done any thorough searching. ISTR that a lot of records were burnt in the War of Independence.

 
29 October 1920

An ex-British soldier, Frank McGinty, was badly beaten and pistol whipped by the IRA in Shraigh, Co. Mayo. Four men- David and Michael Henry, Patrick Reilly and Patrick Heneghan were arrested and found guilty of wounding with intent.
 
30 October 1920

Constable Timothy Horan, aged 40, was killed when his bicycle patrol was ambushed near Loughrea, Co. Galway. The patrol consisted of five RIC men led by Sergeant O'Driscoll, the others being Constables Horan, Keane, Dunne and Gilmartin. Horan took cover behind the wall of the nearby graveyard where he was shot dead. Sergeant O’Driscoll and Constable Dunne retreated on foot to Kilchreest RIC Barracks, Dunne having been wounded in the chest. The other two survivors were disarmed but left alive. Horan was a married man from Co. Kerry.

Several arrests were made in the aftermath of the ambush with five houses in the area being burned in reprisal. Peter Moylan and Michael Callanan, both from the Loughrea area, were court-martialled in early 1921 for the murder of Constable Horan.

 
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31 October 1920
kelleher.jpg
RIC District Inspector Philip St John Kelleher MC was shot dead in the bar of the Grenville Arms Hotel in Granard, Co Longford. At the time of his death he was in the company of members of the North Longford executive of Sinn Féin and a local priest. Coincidentally the Grenville Arms Hotel was owned by the Kiernan family, and the woman who should have become Mrs Collins was serving behind the bar at the time.

The killing of DI Kelleher led to reprisals in Granard and many buildings were set alight by the RIC and British military.

A native of Macroom , Co. Cork District Inspector Kelleher had joined the RIC 4 months previously. He had been commissioned in the Leinster Regiment in 1915 and served in France and Palestine. He earned the MC at Ypres in 1917 for continuing to lead his platoon while wounded and destroying a German MG position.

The North Kerry IRA attacked the RIC barracks and a patrol in the village of Ballyduff, Co. Kerry. Three RIC men were fatally injured in the attack, dying at later dates. In the following days, there were reprisals by the RIC in the area including the killing of four men John Cotillion, Michael Brosnan, John Houlihan and Michael Maguire. The first two were IRA men.

Killed at Ballyduff

Constable William Madden, aged 30. Madden was from Co. Tipperary with 11 years service in the RIC. He died in the attack.

Constable George Morgan fatally wounded, aged 23. He died on 1st November.

Constable Robert Gorbey, died in the Military Hospital, Cork on 10th November, aged 23. An ex-soldier from Newcastle West, Co. Limerick with six months service in the RIC.

Elsewhere in Kerry, two RIC men Constable Albert Caseley and Constable Herbert Evans were shot dead outside Killorglin while returning from leave. Two other RIC men, Constable Ernst Bright and Constable Patrick Waters were reported missing after the attack. They were disappeared and presumably killed. There were tales that they were thrown alive into the furnace in Tralee Gas Works.

In the subsequent reprisals the RIC blockaded the town of Tralee for five days and set fire to the business premises of known supporters of Sinn Féin.

Constable Albert Caseley, 24, from Kent.

Const John Evans, 22, from Belfast

Const Ernest Bright, 34, from London.

Const Patrick Waters, 24, from Spiddal, Co. Galway

Sergeant Henry Cronin was shot and fatally wounded outside his home in Henry St, Tullamore, Co. Offaly. He died the following day.


Edited to add a few other events. 31st October was a busy day.

Tommy Donovan, O/C 7th Battalion, 3rd Tipperary Brigade, was killed in Killenaule, Co. Tipperary. We met Donovan last July when he led an off-the-cuff ambush at Newtown Cross. On this night abandoning the plan backfired on him. Donovan and a group of Volunteers went to Killenaule to kill the sentry outside the military post in the town. When they spotted two RIC men entering a pub, Donovan decided to target them, to capture them and hold them as hostages according to the accounts of survivors. On entering the pub however, there was no sign of the Policemen. Instead of beating a retreat, the IRA decided to revert to the original plan. When they left the pub they were ambushed by a group of soldiers. Donovan fell, badly wounded, while several others were injured but escaped. Donovan was propped up against the wall of what is now a bank and finished off with a bullet to the head.

The funeral of Terence MacSwiney took place in Cork City with massive crowds attending. The Dáil declared a national day of mourning.

Constable Martin Hoban, was wounded in an ambush in Dungannon, Co. Tyrone. This resulted in widespread retaliation by police and loyalists on the nationalist areas of the town.

Under-Secretary James McMahon requested the Viceroy, Lord French that Kevin Barry be reprieved. French declined.

After an ambush by the IRA near Killybegs, Co. Donegal, there is, what the Derry Journal describes as a “night of terror” in Killybegs and “uniformed men paraded the streets, firing indiscriminately”.
 
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1 November 1920

Kevin Barry was hanged in Mountjoy Prison in Dublin. You’ll recall that back in September he forgot to run away after ambushing a group of soldiers at a bakery in Dublin. Barry was captured, court-martialled and sentenced to death. He was the first man executed since the 1916 Rising leaders and his death was used for propaganda purposes by the Republican leadership. In all there were 24 executions of Republicans between now and the Truce in July 1921.

Interestingly, the Republicans executed in Mountjoy, who were buried in the prison grounds, were not exhumed for a proper burial until 2001. Also of interest is that the Hang Room in Mountjoy is still in existence, wanting only a rope, a drop of oil and a qualified executioner.

The Piltown Ambush took place in Co. Waterford. The IRA staged attacks on the RIC and Coastguard stations at Ardmore to draw reinforcements out of Youghal. A single lorry with about 20 men aboard was halted by a blockade on the road at Piltown Cross. One man was killed and two wounded.

KIA

5485478 Private Albert Leigh, 2nd Bn. Hampshire Regiment

Private A. Leigh 5485478. 2nd Bn. Hampshire Regiment

The building that the Hampshires used as a barracks is still in use in Youghal. It belongs to the Health Service and is home to some people with intelelctual disability. It was also a convent at one stage. The defensive positions built by the Hampshires are still to be seen in the garden walls.

Two Royal Artillery Officers were executed as spies by the IRA in Co. Cork. The two were last seen leaving Fermoy on 29th October and the IRA informed the British authorities in November 1921 that they had been executed on this date.

Lieutenant Bernard Brown MC, 26th Heavy Battery, RGA.


Lieutenant David Rutherford MC, 28th Battery, RGA.

Lt David Alfred Rutherford

Constable Peter Cooney killed at Breaghy between Balinalee and Granard, Co Longford by Frank Davis of the Longford Brigade, IRA.

Ellen Quinn was shot through the stomach by the RIC as she sits holding her child by the roadside in Kiltartan, Co. Galway. Ellen died shortly after. A military inquiry found that the firing was “a precautionary measure”.
 

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