Irish War of Independence centenary

Constable Will was from Forfar, Scotland and had joined the RIC in London on the 30th March 1920. He was 24 and of course a Great War veteran. Constable Linnane and Constable Nagle were wounded in the attack.
Seems like he was a member of the RIC Special Reserve (aka the black and tans).
Ormonde Winter, wrote to the Under Secretary, John Anderson, asking for written permission to recruit the Auxiliaries
He was later to become the Head of British Intelligence in Ireland.
 
13 July 1920

Men of Kerry No. 1 Brigade, under Tadgh Brosnan, ambushed an RIC supply patrol at Kilmore, near Dingle. Constable Michael Lenihan and Constable George Roche were killed and DI Fallon and one other wounded.
 
Well the 1919-21 campaign failed to drive the British out of all Ireland and establish a 32 county republic and the 1969 to 2007 campaign failed to drive the British out of the remaining 6 counties and establish a 32 county United Irish Republic.
In republican minds the existence of NI is taken as proof that the British Government never intended to deliver Home Rule and that the war was therefore justified. The 1969 to 2007 campaign worked out quite well. It forced the British government to negotiate with the IRA, put SF in government in NI and on the cusp of taking power in the south. If someone had said in 1969 that that would be the case 50 years on, they'd have been laughed at. A few short years ago I would have said there would never be a united Ireland in my lifetime. I no longer think that.
 
In republican minds the existence of NI is taken as proof that the British Government never intended to deliver Home Rule and that the war was therefore justified. The 1969 to 2007 campaign worked out quite well. It forced the British government to negotiate with the IRA, put SF in government in NI and on the cusp of taking power in the south. If someone had said in 1969 that that would be the case 50 years on, they'd have been laughed at. A few short years ago I would have said there would never be a united Ireland in my lifetime. I no longer think that.
Interesting how SF borrowed the easter rising "heroes" for their own propaganda. To the dubliner on the street though who knew differently it shows how they twist facts to suit them.
 
A few short years ago I would have said there would never be a united Ireland in my lifetime. I no longer think that
Well so long as the UK (England) is not expected to pay anything towards it, good luck to them. It will be fun watching the Gardai dealing with all the bonfires and Orange marches on the 12th. I must remember to order a big tub of popcorn.
 
14 July 1920

Constable Martin Clarke killed, aged 31, when he and Constable Macken, were ambushed while making their way to the Assizes in Roscommon. The attack took place at Moneen or Wakefield, near Lanesborough, Co. Longford. Macken was seriously wounded. Clarke was originally from Kilworth, Co. Cork.

A six man RIC cycle patrol was attacked near Foynes, Co. Limerick. Constable Patrick Fahy was killed, aged 25. Fahy was a native of Tuam, Co. Galway.

The Highland Light Infantry seem to have a penchant for getting into trouble on the water. Four men stole a canoe and went for a trip on the River Shannon at Carrigaholt. All four drowned when the canoe capsized.

76512 Private Richard Mc Clintock, age 20, from Greenock, Scotland

74786 Private H. McIlroy

71979 Private J. Brown

69797 Private John Stokes, from Springburn, Glasgow

All but Stokes are buried in Kilrush/ Shanakyle Cemetary, Co. Clare. Stokes body was washed ashore on the Kerry side of the estuary and he is buried in Tralee Military cemetery.

Update from @131Weeks. At Annesgrove, Tipperary the body of John Dwyer was found by the roadside with gunshot wounds. Dwyer was a caretaker for a landowner named W.P Hanley, who had evicted some of his tenants. Dwyer had been warned in recent weeks to stop working for Hanley but had obviously failed to do so.
 
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16 July 1920

A police patrol of a Sergeant and three Constables was ambushed at a cross roads near Glencar, Co. Kerry. Constables Clery and Cooney were severely wounded by buckshot. The injured men were attended by Dr. Dodd, Killorglin. Constable Cooney was later taken to the County Infirmary in Tralee, but Constable Clery's condition did not permit his being moved. Clery was only six months in the force and Cooney had four years service.

Shrule RIC Barracks, Co. Galway was burned. IRA Volunteer John Keleghan was injured and died on 28 July

Edward Carson asked Wilfred Spender to the take the lead in reforming the Ulster Volunteer Force.
 
Interesting how SF borrowed the easter rising "heroes" for their own propaganda. To the dubliner on the street though who knew differently it shows how they twist facts to suit them.
I believe that SF took no part in the rising. However, the authorities took a different view and immediately arrested the SF founder Arthur Griffiths having assumed that because of Sinn Fein's popularity in the central Dublin area, that SF played a role in the event. It might therefore be that the 'propaganda' associated with SF on that occasions, was the result of behaviour by the authorities rather than any preconceived action by SF - who knows.
 
17 July 1920

The RIC Divisional Commissioner for Munster, Lt-Col Gerald Smyth, was shot dead by the IRA in the Smoking Room of the Cork City Country Club. County Inspector George Craig who was sitting beside Smyth was wounded in the leg.

SHOOT ON SIGHT SMYTH

Constable James Masterson killed in an ambush at Newcastle West, Co . Limerick. Masterson who was 35 years old, married with two children was travelling in a car to Limerick en route to Galway. At Sweep's cross, about two miles from the town, the driver was confronted by a party of men on bicycles, who ordered the car to be stopped. Masterson was shot dead and the driver tied to a tree. Constable Masterson had 13 years service in the RIC.
 
18 July 1920

James Burke, a 42 year old civilian, was killed by a patrol of the South Staffordshire Regt in Cork City in the early hours of the morning. Following the killing of Lt-Col Smyth the previous evening the military were probably a bit annoyed. Burke and another man were involved in an altercation with two off-duty soldiers when the patrol happened upon them. In the subsequent exchange of points of view James Burke was shot dead. Ironically he was himself an ex-soldier, having served during the war in the 2nd Royal Munster Fusiliers. His death led to violent protests by hundreds of ex-soldiers in which the military opened fire.

During one such incident on the night of the 18th they managed to kill another ex-soldier, a one armed veteran of the Leinster Regiment. William McGrath, a 34-year-old father of three, went to the assistance of a girl trapped in a laneway by MG fire from an armoured car. He got her to a house nearby but was hit and killed himself as he left the house.

James O'Brien was the third fatality in Cork on the day. An 18 year old IRA volunteer, he was helping an injured woman in MacCurtain Street when he was shot and fatally wounded.

Edited to change the name of the street from King Street to MacCurtain Street. The Corporation had voted at the beginning of July to change the name in honour of the recently deceased Lord Mayor.
 
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Hopefully more of these photos will be released:


Looks a fascinating project, much like the WW1 colourised photos.
 
19 July 1920

Constables Patrick Carey and James Burke were killed in an ambush near Tuam Co. Galway. The two were returning to the village of Dunmore from Galway Assizes in a motor car, accompanied by Sergeant Beatty and Constable Brennan when they found the road barricaded with felled trees at Newtown D'arcy, about 3 miles from Tuam. Burke, the driver pulled up and as he and Carey were jumping from the car they were shot and fatally wounded. The other two jacked it in and were disarmed and sent on foot back to Tuam.

Constable Patrick Carey was 29 years old and a native of Skibereen, Co. Cork. Constable James Burke was from Birr, Co. Offaly and aged 28.

Military and police reinforcements under District Inspector O'Callaghan went to the scene where they found the two men dead. At about 4 o’clock the following morning volleys of shots were heard in various parts of Tuam as groups of police shot at houses and set fire to the Town Hall and at least one shop. In fairness to the RIC it was reported that the lives of some men were saved by the intervention of Constable Colleran and Head Constable Bowles.

The Attorney General for Ireland, Denis Henry recently told the House of Commons that 34 members of the RIC and 5 of the DMP had been murdered in the first six months of 1920 with a further 70 injured. Ten RIC men have died so far this month with another four yet to die.
 
20 July 1920

The IRA ambushed a British Army lorry at Geata Bán near Coolavohig on the Ballyvourney to Macroom road in Co. Cork. A participant named Micheal O'Suilleabhain left an account of the action in his book"Where Mountainy Men Have Sown" which was published in 1965. The IRA took up positions to ambush the lorry but their plans were thrown out the window somewhat when a civilian Ford came the other way, just as their target was approaching. The IRA men paused until the Ford had passed, then opened fire on the lorry.

"Mick the Soldier stood on the rock, feet apart , pouring rapid magazine fire downwards. Dannie Harrington stood a few yards from him to the west firing more slowly. Across the road, Con Sean Jer fired six shots from a double-barrelled shotgun while, near him , Jamie Moynihan rapidly worked another . A British Army Captain , named Airey , was killed beside the driver , who was himself hit twice , in the arm and the neck . The British Army lorry was by now out of control and it hit the northern rock-face a glancing blow, which tore off a spare wheel mounted on that side . Swerving across the road, it mounted a low wall which dropped inside to a depth of about fifteen feet - it was 'touch-and-go' for a good distance ; if it toppled in , the survivors would have little fight left in them . But the driver tore it off the wall and straightened it for the road . He was a very worthy man , and when we failed to stop him we wished him well . He drove off at high speed . Dannie had a few cartridges left in his magazine - he aimed carefully and fired ; the bullet pierced the rear petrol tank . This gave us renewed hope , and we set off in pursuit of the faltering truck , running roughly parallel to the road . We had hoped to overtake it before it left the rocky country around Poul na Bro, where we could close with it again . We were doomed to disappointment It had cleared the ground that would favour our approach and was stopped in the only patch of open country for miles around . Moreover, a party of British soldiers from the Ballyvourney Garrison had come out to meet it and had sent out sentries ......."

Among the members of the IRA party were Comdt Pat O’Sullivan, his brother Michael O’Sullivan (quoted above), brothers Neilus, (known as Louth), Mick and Terry O’Connell, Patrick Cronin (known as Dowd), and Jerry O’Sullivan. They were joined by a section from B Company from Ballyvourney.

Captain James Airey, Sergeant Nicholson, Private McEwen, Driver Ball RASC and Private Barlow were all wounded but Driver Ball was able to drive through the ambush. Captain Airey (died 21 July) and Private Barlow (died 1 August) both died of their wounds. Some IRA accounts said that there was also a sailor on the truck operating a wireless.

See also

https://theirishrevolution.ie/1920-38/#.XwGyQihKiM8

There will be another ambush at virtually the same spot in February 1921.

Patrick Hassett died St John's Hospital, Limerick, wounded Kilmore House, County Clare. Hassett received a gun shot wound to the shoulder about 12 July 1920 during a raid for arms at Kilmore House, County Clare.

The IRA in Kerry mounted a surprise attack from a train in Tralee railway station where there was a small military post. Eleven rifles were captured with no casualties on either side. Na Fianna members did the intelligence gathering and scouting for the attack.
 
20 July 1933
A little into the future;


Eoin O'Duffy, former Chief of Staff of the IRA, Free State Army General and Garda Commissioner. A functioning alcoholic and admirer of Benito Mussolini O'Duffy became leader of the Army Comrades Association or the Blue Shirts as they are more commonly known. The Blueshirts were a short-lived fascist organisation that merged with Cumann na nGaedheal and the National Centre Party to form Fine Gael in September 1933.

 
Well the 1919-21 campaign failed to drive the British out of all Ireland and establish a 32 county republic and the 1969 to 2007 campaign failed to drive the British out of the remaining 6 counties and establish a 32 county United Irish Republic.
Because that was democratically agreed

The Loyalists weren't having an Ireland outside the UK no matter what happened. They opposed Home Rule going back to the First Home Rule Bill in the 1880s so the actions of the IRA and the Free State had no bearing on their attitude. The northerners were happy to throw their southern compatriots under the bus to make sure their own little state stayed in the union though.

It was Willy Redmond who was killed at Messines Ridge. John Redmond died of natural causes in 1918. Home Rule was a dead duck by 1918 anyway. Public opinion had turned against it after the 1916 executions and the Conscription Crisis of 1918. SF swept the board in the 1918 GE and the 1920 Local elections on a promise of a full-blown republic which the British were not going to agree to. Apart from the war being a battle to drive the British out, it was also a battle to determine who the new masters would be.
many seem to forget that the Irish Volunteers (the big organisation that became the IRA) was formed in response to the Ulster Volunteers (who sought to oppose the crown that they were loyal to)
 
21 July 1920

Captain James Airey, 1st Bn, Manchester Regiment, died of wounds received the day before in the Geata Bán ambush. Airey was 36 years old and originally from Birmingham. He had a long and varied military career, being commissioned in the Indian Army from Sandhurst in 1903, serving with the 114th Mahrattas before resigning in 1909. He spent time in Australia and Canada where he attested for the Canadian Army just prior to WW1. In early 1915 Airey was appointed a Lt in the Essex Regt with whom he fought in Gallipoli and Egypt. In 1916 he was transferred to the Manchester Regiment, and posted to France in 1917 where he rose to the rank of Temp Lt-Col in command of the 11th Bn. Post war, Airey resumed his substantive rank of Captain, and posted to Ireland in October 1919. He was stationed at Kilworth Camp in April and then to Ballincollig in July. He had been sent to Macroom in command of a half-Company there the day before the ambush in which he was fatally wounded.

Sgt Thomas Armstrong, RIC, was fatally shot while on foot patrol near his barracks in Ballina. Constable Regan was wounded in the attack whilst Constables Nangle and Barnes escaped injury. Armstrong was a native of Stradone, Co Cavan, 56 years old, with 30 years service and was due out on pension at the end of July. He left a widow and ten children to mourn him.

Volunteers Daniel McGrath and Thomas McDonnell killed at Corracunna Cross near Mitchelstown.

https://theirishrevolution.ie/1920-40/#.XwGz5ChKiM8

02290 Pte Kester Sturridge, DCLI, drowned at Finner Beach, Donegal. Sturridge, who served under the assumed name Charles Conn, was aged 20 and from Stepney. He is interred in Finner Camp Cemetery.
 
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22 July 1920

The funeral took pace in Enistymon, Co. Clare of Michael Conway (above), a local IRA man. Michael and four of his comrades, Michael Morgan, Patrick Madigan, Seamus McMahon and Austin Healy had tried to hold up and disarm two officers of the Royal Scots the previous evening. None of the IRA men was armed and predictably the two officers drew their revolvers, shooting McMahon and Conway. Conway died within minutes.

Comdt James Cogan was shot dead by a military patrol in Castle Street, Oldcastle, Co. Meath. Cogan had arrested a man for cattle stealing and while transporting prisoner in a car they ran into the patrol.
 

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