Irish War of Independence centenary

It was obvious from De Valera's talks with Lloyd George that a Republic wasn't going to happen. Suddenly Dev declares that he isn't a doctrinaire republican.

De Valera will take whatever independence the Brits give him but the republican hardliners in the Dáil, like Brugha and Stack, aren't buying that. Dev, sets Collins up to fail to deliver the Republic in the subsequent Treaty negotiations knowing before the negotiations begin that there is no possibility the British will concede on the issue.

It's interesting how the events are the result of power struggles between the individuals involved for personal gain. De Valera came out on top, losing the war, but winning the peace. Basically he didn't care what form of government Ireland had as long as he was running it.

wasn’t aware of the internal politics in what became the anti-Treaty side but then of course he only sat it out until 1926.

so he helped cause the Civil War for something he didn’t believe in himself.

Like a lot of his life (especially early life), a paradox
 
wasn’t aware of the internal politics in what became the anti-Treaty side but then of course he only sat it out until 1926.

so he helped cause the Civil War for something he didn’t believe in himself.

Like a lot of his life (especially early life), a paradox
At my most cynical, and as I said in my last post on the subject, I think De Valera's goal was to make himself top dog. He had been working on this for a while, Fianna Fáil, and its propaganda organ, The Irish Press, would be founded with money Dev had raised in the US in 1919-20, which he had squirrelled away. The Civil War was merely a means to an end, and would have happened with or without De Valera anyway. He did settle on republicanism as his vehicle to power though, and it worked well for him.
 
I've been absent for a few days due to work, Civil Defence training and a day spent battling a serious bout of hypoglycaemia :D. Onward and upward.

26 August 1921

Lloyd George wrote a tetchy reply to De Valera’s last letter. The letters from the British side are quite amusing to modern eyes in their incomprehension of anyone not being loyal, and not wanting to be loyal, to the British Monarch.

In Dublin the Dáil met in public session. The government resigned and a new one was formed. De Valera was elected President of the Irish Republic, a new title, the motion proposed by Sean McKeon and seconded by Richard Mulcahy. The new government consisted of;

Arthur Griffith - Foreign Affairs

Michael Collins - Finance

Cathal Brugha - Defence

Austen Stack - Home Affairs

William Cosgrave - Local Government

Kevin O’Higgins - Assistant Minister of Local Government

Robert Barton - Economic Affairs

In addition, seven minor ministries outside of cabinet:

Desmond Fitzgerald - Publicity (previously Propaganda) (Childers had undertaken this work since February when FitzGerald in prison but latter took it over when released in August.)

JJ O'Kelly - Education (formerly National Language)

Count Plunkett - Fine Arts

Joseph McDonagh - Belfast boycott

Constance Markievicz – Labour

Ernest Blythe – Trade and Commerce

Art O’Connor - Agriculture

Sean Etchingham – Fisheries

bruree soviet.jpg

The Bruree Soviet Workers Mill (above) came into existence. The bakery and mills in Bruree, Co. Limerick were occupied by its employees. All staff except the manager and chief clerk joined the occupation, hoisted a red flag and declared the mill was the property of workers and would sell its food cheap and reduce profiteering. Union officials claimed the Soviet was able to drop prices, double sales and increase wages. Countess Markievicz, fine Socialist, member of the Irish Citizen Army and Minister for Labour, that she was threatened to use the IRA to intervene against the workers and on 3rd September the Soviet ended.
 
At my most cynical, and as I said in my last post on the subject, I think De Valera's goal was to make himself top dog. He had been working on this for a while, Fianna Fáil, and its propaganda organ, The Irish Press, would be founded with money Dev had raised in the US in 1919-20, which he had squirrelled away. The Civil War was merely a means to an end, and would have happened with or without De Valera anyway. He did settle on republicanism as his vehicle to power though, and it worked well for him.

i definitely agree on him wanting to be top dog

not sure how to square that with being anti-treaty though (Collins & Griffith getting too much much limelight?)
 
27 August 1921

A hand-grenade was thrown by loyalists into the home of the Moane family in Nelson Street, Belfast. It being early in the morning all 10 residents were in bed upstairs and escaped injury. There was a series of such bomb attacks in the area at the time. Over the next couple of days there was extensive sniping in North Belfast with two people being killed by republican gunfire.

In Barnsley Lloyd George gave an uncompromising speech on Ireland, saying that "if Southern Ireland is not satisfied with freedom, but insists on separation, then I fear all hope of accommodation must be abandoned'. He went on to add that even though Scotland did not have its own language, it had an accent so destructive they could justify a claim for separation. He added Wales and Scotland did not seek independence as it would lead to death and destruction.
 
i definitely agree on him wanting to be top dog

not sure how to square that with being anti-treaty though (Collins & Griffith getting too much much limelight?)
Collins was the most famous man in Ireland. Young, handsome, charming, single and a war hero. De Valera has the personality of a mackerel and had spent the war dodging the draft in America. You can see his problem.
 
Collins was the most famous man in Ireland. Young, handsome, charming, single and a war hero. De Valera has the personality of a mackerel and had spent the war dodging the draft in America. You can see his problem.
In fairness, the US didn’t enter the war or have the draft until 1917

but if you go back to his childhood you can also see same problem
 
28 August 1921

In Newtownards, William Coote, the MP for Fermanagh and Tyrone, called on Lloyd George to drop talks and any future accommodation of Sinn Féin. He also echoed calls for the resignation of the Northern Ireland Minister for Agriculture, Edward Archdale, for appointing a Catholic to his team.

In one of largest crowds since Bloody Sunday, 20,000 people attended the Leinster Football Final between Kildare and Dublin in Croke Park. The game ended in a draw and Dublin went on to win the replay on 18th September.

A group of people entered the orchard of Patrick Walsh in Cappamore, Co. Limerick and stripped the trees of their fruit. Walsh was interned on Bere Island at the time. The local IRA apprehended the fruit thieves.

A veteran New Zealand MP, named William Jennings, visited Ireland. Jennings was on a tour of Europe to visit the graves of two of his sons who died during Great War. One was killed in Gallipoli, and one died of wounds in Athlone. After a short search I found the two sons, Private Edgar Jennings was killed on 3 August 1915 and is buried in Shrapnel Valley Cemetery in Gallipoli. His brother Second Lieutenant Harold Jennings, RFA, was wounded at Loos on 29 September 1915 and died of blood poisoning on 29 February 1916 in Athlone. He is buried in Cornamanagh Cemetery.
 
In fairness, the US didn’t enter the war or have the draft until 1917

but if you go back to his childhood you can also see same problem
I was making a joke about De Valera skulking in America while the war was on in Ireland. That's how it could be portrayed by his enemies. Dev was of course doing necessary work in the States.
 
I've been absent for a few days due to work, Civil Defence training and a day spent battling a serious bout of hypoglycaemia :D. Onward and upward.

26 August 1921

Lloyd George wrote a tetchy reply to De Valera’s last letter. The letters from the British side are quite amusing to modern eyes in their incomprehension of anyone not being loyal, and not wanting to be loyal, to the British Monarch.

In Dublin the Dáil met in public session. The government resigned and a new one was formed. De Valera was elected President of the Irish Republic, a new title, the motion proposed by Sean McKeon and seconded by Richard Mulcahy. The new government consisted of;

Arthur Griffith - Foreign Affairs

Michael Collins - Finance

Cathal Brugha - Defence

Austen Stack - Home Affairs

William Cosgrave - Local Government

Kevin O’Higgins - Assistant Minister of Local Government

Robert Barton - Economic Affairs

In addition, seven minor ministries outside of cabinet:

Desmond Fitzgerald - Publicity (previously Propaganda) (Childers had undertaken this work since February when FitzGerald in prison but latter took it over when released in August.)

JJ O'Kelly - Education (formerly National Language)

Count Plunkett - Fine Arts

Joseph McDonagh - Belfast boycott

Constance Markievicz – Labour

Ernest Blythe – Trade and Commerce

Art O’Connor - Agriculture

Sean Etchingham – Fisheries


The Bruree Soviet Workers Mill (above) came into existence. The bakery and mills in Bruree, Co. Limerick were occupied by its employees. All staff except the manager and chief clerk joined the occupation, hoisted a red flag and declared the mill was the property of workers and would sell its food cheap and reduce profiteering. Union officials claimed the Soviet was able to drop prices, double sales and increase wages. Countess Markievicz, fine Socialist, member of the Irish Citizen Army and Minister for Labour, that she was threatened to use the IRA to intervene against the workers and on 3rd September the Soviet ended.

Kevin O'Higgins could have been the best of them - but the wicked Brits took him out in 1927, aged just 35.

Edited to correct: oh no, the IRA did it.
Naturally.
 
29 August 1921

Rioting in the New Lodge area of Belfast resulted in the deaths of two men.

Thomas Rafter, aged 18, from Burke Street was killed on North Queen Street. He is buried in Strangford, Co. Down.

Colin Hogg, age 42, was killed in Lepper Street. From Lawther Street, Hogg is buried in Belfast City Cemetery.

20 men interned on Spike Island in Cork Harbour began a hunger strike as they demanded their release. They maintained that the military courts that convicted them were illegal bodies citing recent precedence of the acquittal of two men sentenced to death.

In Dungarvan, Co. Waterford a group of British soldiers requested admission to an IRA fund raising dance. When they were refused a struggle ensued in which one soldier was wounded.
 
30 August 1921

Nine people were killed in Belfast, mostly in the New Lodge Road, North Queen Street and York Street areas. The dead were;

Stephen Cash (68), was looking out his window on Sussex Street and he was shot in the head. He is buried in the City Cemetery.

William Kennedy (26), from Grove Street, was shot in the chest on Earl Street and died within a short time. He had served in the Royal Navy. Buried Dundonald Cemetery, Belfast.

William Smith (28), from Paris Street. Smith was shot in the stomach on North Queen Street. Buried Shankill Cemetery.

Annie Watson (5), was shot dead in the kitchen of her home on North Queen Street. Buried Shankill Cemetery.

Henry Bowers (21), from Cambridge Street. He was shot on Dale Street, Buried Carnmoney.

Samuel Ferguson (42). From Donegall Road, he was shot and fatally wounded on North Queen Street. Buried in Monaghan.

John Coogan (47) from Valentine Street. He died on North Queen Street.

Thomas McMullan (34) was from Seskinore, Co. Tyrone. He lived over the pub he managed on North Queen Street. He was shot and fatally wounded in the pub about 6 pm and died three hours later. He is buried in Seskinore.

Charles Harvey (39) was shot and fatally wounded at 11 am in the yard of a house on Columbus Street. He died on 6th September

De Valera replied to Llyod George’s letter of the 26th. Nothing new was said but the Irish government was willing to appoint plenipotentiaries for a peace conference.

Nationalists from Tyrone and Fermanagh met with De Valera and members of the government in the Mansion House to discuss their being forced in Northern Ireland against their will.
 
31 August 1921
More deaths occurred during continued violence in Belfast. At least 36 others were injured.

Alice Duff (54) from Academy Street died in hospital after being shot in the stomach. She is buried in Milltown Cemetery.

William McKeown (18 ). From Lancaster Street, McKeown was shot in the head during a riot.

Richard Duffin (50). Duffin was from New Lodge Road and was shot on North Queen Street as he made his way to work at 8 am.

James Bradley (26), from Derry. He lived on McCleery Street and was shot dead on West Street about 8 pm.

James McFadden (16) was shot and fatally wounded at 7 pm on Wall Street. Buried Carnmoney.

Walter Campbell (15) from Silvio Street was shot in the same incident as McFadden, although the two were on opposite sides of the riot. A sniper in the Shankill area fired into the crowd. Campbell died the following day.

William Johnston (15) from Louisa Street was fatally wounded in the same area as the two above and died on 2nd September.

Thomas Finnegan (53) from Keyland Place, was shot dead on Garmoyle Street as he walked to work on the docks

Leopold Leonard (55) from Dover Street. Leonard was shot on the corner of Boyd Street as he walked to work. He died on 6th September.

Thomas Lee (70) from Manor Street. He was run over by an armoured car on North Queen Street.

At a meeting of the Northern Ireland cabinet, Dawson Bates, the Minister for Home Affairs, demanded the mobilisation of the Special Constabulary and the introduction of internment. Internment is still ongoing anyway but it must have looked good in the papers. A W Cope and General Tudor came from Dublin and talk to both sides in Belfast in an attempt to pour oil on troubled flames. More troops would be sent to Belfast but that was it. After this refusal to mobilise the Loyalist Stormtroops, Craig gave unofficial sanction to the reorganisation of the UVF (same blokes, different uniform), giving the job to Fred Crawford. Shocked by the re-emergence of the UVF, Craig appealed to the British Government for the transfer of responsibility for law and order to the Northern Ireland Government. This transfer would be agreed on November 5th.
 
1 September 1921

After ten days of violence in which 16 people were killed and over 200 injured, British army reinforcements restore order in Belfast.

Robert Barton and Joseph McGrath travelled to Gairloch in the Scottish Highlands where Prime Minister David Lloyd George was holidaying to personally deliver the Dáil's rejection of his proposals.

The Dangerous Drugs Act came into effect across Britain and Ireland, restricting the sale of cocaine, heroin, raw opium, and morphine. Such drugs were regularly prescribed and included in medicines up to this.

Police Inspector E.H May, from the Cleveland, Ohio, Police Department arrived in Dublin on a tour of European cities investigating traffic controls. After his inspection he travelled to Sligo where he was born to meet with relatives.
 
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2 September 1921

The home of the Doherty family was bombed in Belfast. A woman was injured in the attack on Boundary Street.

The PM summoned the Cabinet to a meeting in Inverness the following week.

The short-lived Bruree Soviet came to an end.

A relatively fresh human leg was found in Silver Street, Nenagh, Co. Tipperary. Nobody turned up to claim it apparently.
 
3 September 1921

General Neville Macready travelled to Gairloch in Scotland to discuss the Irish letter to Lloyd George with the man himself. LG viewed the letter as a final rejection of the Dominion Status on offer.

Maggie Doherty claimed she was attacked by two B Specials on her way to work in Belfast. Maggie had sustained cuts to the head caused by being hit on the head with a stone.
 
Collins was the most famous man in Ireland. Young, handsome, charming, single and a war hero. De Valera has the personality of a mackerel and had spent the war dodging the draft in America. You can see his problem.
OK, I'll Bite

how does de Valera dodge the US Draft in 1917-18 when first he is in a British Prison until his release & election?
from the wording of the 1917 US selective service act he wasnt required to register

 

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