I remember George Dubya getting roasted when there was something catastrophic in the Middle East. Red Cross offered this, OxFam offered that. Everybody offered something.
Dubya offered a visit from a nuclear carrier. Everybody asked wtf until it was explained that almost unlimited pure drinking water was a by-product of reactor cooling, it had a hospital as big as a small town and a crew of similar size, but all fit, strong and capable. Helicopters for MedEvac, etc, etc.
15% I think.The stuff bought by farmers in NI had to have a nitrate percentage below a set limit, I forget what that limit was. The fertilisers sold here had no additives really, just a different mix of chemicals to give less nitrogen, e.g. phosphorus or potassium nitrates instead of ammonium nitrate. As long as the percentage of nitrates was below the limit, all was good. It would still go bang though, e.g. Co-op mix.
All from memory so I’ll take any corrections.
Edit to add: The Co-op bombing may have been the trigger for the nitrate limit being imposed. Hazy memory.
I wonder if the port was ISPS compliant?
I would have thought it would be certified as it would have a lot of visiting vessels but probably along the lines of Ghana, i.e. a stack of lies. They'd have a good excuse for not having the plan to hand as it would have been vapourised along with the port control building.....and the PFSO.Tends to be a bit irrelevant in some countries where the 'designated authority' doesn't give a toss. I did an audit in Ghana where they had all the ticks in the boxes - I drove in to the port and then wandered about for quite a while and then asked to meet the PFSO. The security was non existent.
No. Flixborough was a Vapour Cloud Explosion.Was Flixborough a BLEVE?
Sent from my iPhone using Tapatalk
I would have thought it would be certified as it would have a lot of visiting vessels but probably along the lines of Ghana, i.e. a stack of lies. They'd have a good excuse for not having the plan to hand as it would have been vapourised along with the port control building.....and the PFSO.
A good example of vapour finding an ignition source is the Permex gas plant in Mexico. Plenty of vids on Youtube that show it from many angles.No. Flixborough was a Vapour Cloud Explosion.
At Flix, a pipe burst and a large cloud of flammable vapour escaped. This was then accidentally ignited. [Bluntly, if you release enough flammable vapour it will find an ignition source somewhere]
Without going into the mechanics of it, when the cloud is in a congested area (like a chemical plant) the rate of burning is enhanced and generates pressure.
MOABs use a similar effect but with enhanced ignition sources and highy reactive fuels.
Dingerr's already given the specifics for ammonium nitrate fertilisers, as far as I know dilution with inert substances is the only realistic approach to make ammonium nitrate in particular less hazardous. Ideally you want some other substance with similar properties to ammonium nitrate to avoid easy separation by naughty people.Question for @Ortholith and @dingerr (and anyone else who might know) - can Ammonium Nitrate be madequate safe by adding other chemicals? I am sure I heard somewhere that during the troubles in Ulster farmers were unable to buy the pure stuff, but the additives not only made it less explosive but were good for soil.
We have a few structures like that on the low road to Bo'ness from Grangemouth.A good example of vapour finding an ignition source is the Permex gas plant in Mexico. Plenty of vids on Youtube that show it from many angles.