August Storm in Manchuria, 1945. What do you know about it?

#1
http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/glantz4/glantz4.asp

The 1945 Soviet campaign in Manchuria ended less than two weeks after it had begun. It took the Soviet Army about seven days to crush the Japanese Kwantung Army and end Japanese domination of northeastern Asia. The Soviets executed their self-styled strategic "Cannae"* by launching three separate fronts** along converging axes into central Manchuria (see map 1-1). Shortly after midnight on 9 August, more than 1.5 million men commenced the attack. By attacking in the dark, on a broad front, along multiple attack axes, often across terrain the Japanese considered impassable, and, in many sectors, through drenching August rains, Soviet forces exerted maximum pressure on the surprised Japanese defenders. By organizing their forces to achieve a rapid advance in all types of terrain and by leading the advance wherever possible with armored forward detachments, the Soviets generated the speed necessary to overcome initial Japanese defenses and to preempt subsequent Japanese defensive efforts.

Soviet efforts yielded success. The three fronts penetrated western, eastern, and northern Manchuria, preempted Japanese defenses, and paralyzed the Japanese command and control system. The Russians bypassed, isolated, and annihilated Japanese covering forces, while Japanese main force units sought in vain to create a viable defense line. The massive scale of the Soviet attack underscored its audaciousness, relentlessness, and intrepidness.
*In 216 B.C., during the 2d Punic War, Hannibal's Carthaginian Army enveloped and destroyed a Roman Army at Cannae in what has since become the model for a successful double envelopment
Although the Japanese did not formally surrender until 20 August, by 16 August Soviet forces had in fact secured all the objectives necessary for complete victory.
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1995/HAL.htm

The collapse of the Kwantung Army shocked observers who had
expected a tougher fight for Manchuria. Our assessment of
the campaign shows that the Soviets were superior in all six
of the US Army's Battlefield Operational Functions: intelli-
gence, command and control, synchronization, movement and
maneuver, protection, and fires.
This armor-heavy
force captured the major central Manchurian cities of Mukden,
Chang'chun, and Tsitsihar by 20 August - covering a distance
of about 600 miles in 11 days.
http://www.oxfordjapan.org/timeline.html

8/15/1945. Emperor announces end of hostilities; words such as "surrender" and "defeat" are not mentioned
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1986/RMF.htm

However Japanese IGHQ did not issue a formal
cease-fire order to the Kwangtung Army until August 17th.
[12-39] The result was continued fighting in some areas,
surrender in other areas and confusion everywhere.
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1986/RMF.htm

As a result of the Russians' meticulous planning and
bold offensive plan, they took 594,000 Japanese prisoners
including 143 generals and 20,000 wounded. The Kwangtung
Army suffered over 80,000 men and officers killed in combat
which lasted less than two weeks. In contrast, the well-
prepared Soviet Army had 8,219 killed and 22,264 wounded.
 
#2
Malinovski's classic tank dash campaign...but, the question that's on all our lips is: did anyone get raped?
 
#3
Escape-from-PPRuNe said:
Malinovski's classic tank dash campaign...but, the question that's on all our lips is: did anyone get raped?
As to Chinese and Korean women raped by Japanese soldiers then...

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/223038.stm

Between December 1937 and March 1938 one of the worst massacres in modern times took place. Japanese troops captured the Chinese city of Nanjing and embarked on a campaign of murder, rape and looting.

Based on estimates made by historians and charity organisations in the city at the time, between 250,000 and 300,000 people were killed, many of them women and children.

The number of women raped was said by Westerners who were there to be 20,000, and there were widespread accounts of civilians being hacked to death.
...
After the Second World War was over, one of the Japanese soldiers who was in Nanjing spoke about what he had seen.

Azuma Shiro recalled one episode: "There were about 37 old men, old women and children. We captured them and gathered them in a square."

"There was a woman holding a child on her right arm... and another one on her left."

"We stabbed and killed them, all three - like potatoes in a skewer. I thought then, it's been only one month since I left home... and 30 days later I was killing people without remorse."
As to Soviet soldiers then I'm unaware. I you would find anything then please tell me about it.
 
#4
I am a great fan of the Red Army. However, this campaign was not anything surprising or unexpected. The Japanese forces in place were those who hadn't been dragged away to the main effort and were not Japan's finest. They were woefully underequipped by European standards and their armour was pathetic. Their supply was non-existent as the US closed the vice on Japan.

The Soviets were tooled up to the eyeballs and veterans of dismantling the Wehrmacht. They had more supplies than you could shake a whole forest of sticks at. The outcome was boringly predictable.

The campaign itself was wholly unnecessary from a military point of view, however it expanded Soviet territory quite satisfactorily in that part of the world.

If you want to talk about things that the Red Army did that were unexpected then what about the deeply echeloned defence used in 1941 ? The sacrifice of Pavlov's Western Group of Forces, the defence anchored on the Pripet, Yelyna and so on ? Leading to the counter-offensive around Moscow using troops withdrawn from the border with Manchuria - withdrawn as there wasn't much of a threat from the Japanese troops in Manchuria.
 
#5
Dear Stranger!

One_of_the_strange said:
However, this campaign was not anything surprising or unexpected.
Final resul was expected and logical. But I think that Americans didn't expect so fast and full defeat. Nobody (except Soviet generals) could expect it. Anyway about 1 mln soldiers (including Chenese allies) was a real power.

The Japanese forces in place were those who hadn't been dragged away to the main effort and were not Japan's finest.
It is true of course but it was not Iraqi but Japanese army. It's best regiments were super, other ones were simply good (not bad). Anyway Kwantung army was better than Italian army (for example).

They were woefully underequipped by European standards and their armour was pathetic. Their supply was non-existent as the US closed the vice on Japan.
It was irrelevant. As Kwantung army was defeated in few days then any supplies from Japan couldn't help. Nothern China is a big region. So there was no problems with food and labour force to build defence lines, to repair roads, railways and so on.

The Soviets were tooled up to the eyeballs and veterans of dismantling the Wehrmacht. They had more supplies than you could shake a whole forest of sticks at. The outcome was boringly predictable.
http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/glantz4/glantz4.asp

In good terrain, Soviets expected advance rates of up to one hu
ndred kilometers per day
If you would say that it was predictable then I rather disagree.

The campaign itself was wholly unnecessary from a military point of view, however it expanded Soviet territory quite satisfactorily in that part of the world.
Who knows? At that time Americans had only few A-bambs and they would not be effective against Kwantung army taking into account size of territory. Soviet Union was asked (by US/UK) to declare war on Japan after 3 months from victory in Europe. If involvement of Soviet Union was unnecessary then why it was decided in Yalta? Btw, all territirial aquisitions of Soviet Union were approved in Yalta.

Japan could declare capitulation 7 August 1945 (after first A-bombing). It would be a very wise decision). In this case Soviet offensive operation would be indeed unnecessary. But Japan capitulated only after factual defeat of Kwantung army. 'After' is not equal to 'because of' but no doubt situation in China influenced on final decision.

If you want to talk about things that the Red Army did that were unexpected then what about the deeply echeloned defence used in 1941 ?
Operations in Europe are too well-know. By contrast, 'August Storm' is absolutely unknown in the West. But this operation is probably the most effective one of such scale during WW2 (and maybe even in world history).

...counter-offensive around Moscow using troops withdrawn from the border with Manchuria - withdrawn as there wasn't much of a threat from the Japanese troops in Manchuria.
Btw, my grandfather was severely wounded near Moscow in 1941. Later he was killed at last day of Stalingrad battle.
 
#6
Well, the reason why the Russian could withdraw troops from the Manchurian border in 1941 was that, after the Japanese made several tries to invade Siberia in the 1930s, they got a very good kicking every time (Chuikov rings a bell?), and decided not to risk it again, even though Hitler tried to push them to open another front.
The Russians had a spy inside the German embassy in Tokyo, Richard Sorge, who gave them the news, and Stalin decided that it was safe to withdraw some divisions from Siberia to send them to the western front.

Jan
 
#7
Walther said:
Well, the reason why the Russian could withdraw troops from the Manchurian border in 1941 was that, after the Japanese made several tries to invade Siberia in the 1930s, they got a very good kicking every time (Chuikov rings a bell?), and decided not to risk it again, even though Hitler tried to push them to open another front.
The Russians had a spy inside the German embassy in Tokyo, Richard Sorge, who gave them the news, and Stalin decided that it was safe to withdraw some divisions from Siberia to send them to the western front.

Jan
You are absolutely right. Though Stalin would make it anyway later or sooner. After Pearl Harbour it was not too dangerous. There was a big dispute inside Japanese military leadership about direction of future expansion in 1941.

1. War with USA
2. War with Soviet Union then it had enough troops on Far East.

Japanese 'thinktank' thought that next year Soviet Union would be an easy target (even during war with USA) after its 'inevitable' defeat. In 1942 Japans theoretically could capture Soviet Far East and part of Siberia but what would be further development? Stalin could invite for example American troops. After Stalingrad, I think Japans left idea of invasion in Soviet Union.

Interesting detail. There was peace treaty between Japan and Soviet Union. Accodring to the treaty Soviet Union was to arrest American planes and crews until the end of the war. 3 American B-29 (that had technical problems) and crews were formally detained. The Americans were placed (with comfort of course) in camp in Uzbekistan but 'escaped' and were in Iran soon.

As to the planes, Stalin summoned leading constructors and asked were they able to built such a plane.

'We can make even a better plane'.

'No I don't want better. Make exactly one-to-one copy.'

Fate of those who dare not obey Stalin's orders was sad. So B-29 was reproduced (in many copies) with great accuracy.
 
#8
In 1941, the Japanese had two problems:
The American oil embargo and the lack of rubber (both needed for a mechanised army and even more the Navy and Air Force). To continue their main goal (the occupation of China, surprisingly at their maximum expansion, the Japanese didn´t even control half of China and were stuck in a protracted guerilla war, mainly against Mao Ze-Dong´s Communists), they desperately need oil and rubber. Their intended source of oil were the oil fields in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), while their target for rubber were the rubber plantations in the Malayan peninsula.
The problem was that the American controlled Philippines were straddling their supply lines for the attack on Indonesia, so they had to be taken as well. The Japanese knew that the Americans had a big fleet in Hawaii, which would come to the aid of the Philippines, therefore they struck against Pearl Harbour to destroy this fleet and have a free hand in south-east Asia. Unfortunately for them, they missed the American aircraft carriers and with the unannounced attack drew the wrath of the American population and the whole industrial power on themselves.

Jan
 
#9
KGB_resident said:
Fate of those who dare not obey Stalin's orders was sad. So B-29 was reproduced (in many copies) with great accuracy.
For the spotters among you all


The Tu 4 'Bull'
 
#10
I absolutely agree with Walther.

Recently I saw documentary about 'creation' of TU-4. Even photo-camera belonged to one crewman was reproduced. It was regarded as a planes equipment (Soviet variant was called FED - Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky).
 

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