Aspects of Occupation - the Nazis and Norway

Goatman

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Book Reviewer
( Mods - I had a Search and couldn't find anything more recent than 2011 which might have fitted....Rather than perform yet another Thread revival I thought this worth a fresh look. Feel free to re-direct / shoot me as ye listeth.)


Sparked by the Review by @diverman of Stephen Wynn's ' The 'Shetland Bus ' , I took a look Inside the e-version and was stopped briefly in my tracks by this rather throwaway statement :

Such establishments as the University of Oslo had a number of its senior staff arrested and sent to Bredtveidt [ Norwegian Kz established by Nazi Reichskommisar Terboven] in Oct 1943. Earlier that same year, a group of Jewish people arived in Oslo as prisoners. They were also sent to Bredtveit, where they remained unitl 24 February 1943, when they were placed on a train and sent to Auschwitz Kz in Poland.

What happened to them is unclear, but it is almost certain that they met their deaths in the camp's notorious gas chambers. '



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According to THIS SOURCE , Norway lost 9,500 killed in WWII - 6,500 of whom were Civilians.

I have yet to read the book in its entirety - but it seems to me unlikely that the fate of the Jewish prisoners despatched to Auschwitz in 1943 remains unknown, given

i) the meticulous record-keeping of the Nazi state apparat
ii) the extensive tracing post-war of various Holocaust memorial organisations.

That said, the speed with which prisoners arriving in Auschwitz were 'processed' was horribly swift

Is there an account of the Nazi Occupation of Norway as detailed as Ian Ousby's book on France?

If so, please point me at it.

Whilst Norway did indeed resist Nazi occupation with vigour ( a fact of which they remain justifiably proud) the other side of the coin is that, as in France, there were many who were happy to swing their weight behind the New Order : 15,000 Norwegians volunteeered to fight alongside the Reich, 6,000 of whom served in the Waffen SS.

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SOURCE
Before the war, both Denmark and Norway had fascist parties. The Danish National Socialist Workers' Party (Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Arbejderparti, or DNSAP) was founded in 1930, however, only held three seats in parliament by 1939.[1]

By 1933, Vidkun Quisling was the leader of a Norwegian political party, National Unity (Nasjonal Samling, NS).[2] However, it was not effective as a political party until the pro-German government took over after Norway was occupied. At that point, its state police, abolished in 1937, was reestablished to assist the Gestapo in Norway.

In the Netherlands, the National Socialist Movement (Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging, NSB) had greater success before the war. The party had four per cent of the vote in the 1937 national elections.

After the occupation in 1940, all these groups worked in their respective countries in support of Nazi Germany and became recruiting grounds for the Waffen-SS.
[3]
 
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Can't help you with regard to Norway unfortunately.
If you are interested in Denmark as a side interest, perhaps in the future, then a good read would be "Countrymen" by Bo Lidegaard published by Atlantic Books.
It is basically about how the Jewish population of Denmark escaped across to Sweden in 1943 but gives a really good insight into events from before the invasion through to the escapes and the very clever politics played by the Danish Government under occupation.
A real eye-opener about how they played the German administration off with some very astute moves.
The contrast between the two occupied nations in Scandinavia and how they were treated is amazing.
Over 99% of Danish Jews survived the war and this is a very educating read (and in English too).
The ISBN is 9781782391487

Image 1 - Countrymen - 9781782391487
 
Can't help you with regard to Norway unfortunately.
If you are interested in Denmark as a side interest, perhaps in the future, then a good read would be "Countrymen" by Bo Lidegaard published by Atlantic Books.
It is basically about how the Jewish population of Denmark escaped across to Sweden in 1943 but gives a really good insight into events from before the invasion through to the escapes and the very clever politics played by the Danish Government under occupation.
A real eye-opener about how they played the German administration off with some very astute moves.
The contrast between the two occupied nations in Scandinavia and how they were treated is amazing.
Over 99% of Danish Jews survived the war and this is a very educating read (and in English too).
The ISBN is 9781782391487

Image 1 - Countrymen - 9781782391487
Allways liked the Danes
I spent 4 months there when the Sariejevo Olympics were on.
Riding horses out in Copenhagens Shalottenlund every day I kept seeing little well maintained memorials comemmerating where three or four locals had met their death at the hands of the Germans.
They might have forgiven Nelson ,but the Germans ? Probably less so.
 
I have yet to read the book in its entirety - but it seems to me unlikely that the fate of the Jewish prisoners despatched to Auschwitz in 1943 remains unknown, given

i) the meticulous record-keeping of the Nazi state apparat
ii) the extensive tracing post-war of various Holocaust memorial organisations.

I can believe the fate remains unknown.

The Germans might have kept records, but who would have cared about them in 1945? Any paper found by soviet soldiers would have probably have been used to start a fire. Even surviving paperwork might have some details, but not enough to conclusively say, its X individual from Y place who died on Z day.

If entire families were deported and killed, no one would be left to report them missing at the end of the war.

If you were a local who had either grassed up a Jew and/or nicked their property, you were unlikely to draw attention to the missing people.

There were more important things for most people to do in 1945 and the years afterwards than to look for possible missing people.




As for the Norgies, there were a piss poor country before the oil boom, the Germans rocked up while kicking arse all around Europe, were fairly nice to the Norwegians, told them they were the superior race and flashed the cash.
The casualty rate was less than 0.05% of the total population during the invasion and damage was quite low.

Its not surprising that some Norwegians were enthusiastic towards the Germans.


Like the French, after the war, everyone remember that they had been working with the resistance in some form or another.
 
Norway had a complex issue, post - war, dealing with collaboration. In the immediate post-war period, some 28,000 Norwegians were arrested for collaboration. The death penalty was re-introduced and circa 47 Norwegians were executed. Others served periods of imprisonment. The issue of punishing collaborators proved controversial and divisive however and was stopped after a few years.
Of the approx 700 Norwegian Jews deported by the Germans, all but 24 were killed/or died due to conditions. There were two Concentration Camps in Norway. Most Norwegian Jews survived the war, after either being smuggled to safety or hidden by fellow countrymen.
The Norwegian SS units were withdrawn from combat before the final collapse on the Eastern Front. I have some info about that which I will look up.
 

Goatman

ADC
Book Reviewer
Anni-Frid Lyngstad (Frida of Abba) is the illegitimate wartime child of an occupying Wehrmacht soldier and a Norwegian mother. One of many thousands such.
Um.....nearly....the story is slightly darker for Anni-Frid.

Himmler's Lebensborn programme ran in her native Norway - the idea being to re-populate Neues Europa with ' good Aryan stock '

Most sources say her father was a Wehrmacht soldier rather than SS.

But for a German-born child growing up in post-war Norway - one of the Tyskerbarnas - I doubt that made much difference.

Torment of the Abba star with a Nazi father

SOURCE
Norway was occupied in 1940. This country especially interested Himmler because of its Viking past. Himmler had a great interest in the warriors the Vikings produced and their success as fighters. Norwegian women were encouraged or forced into sexual liaisons with SS officers regardless of whether they were married or not and nine Lebensborn homes were established in the country. Children born as a result of such liaisons were brought up in Germany by approved Nazi parents. They were baptised in a SS ceremony where their adoptive parents swore that the child would have a lifelong allegiance to Nazi beliefs. Other Lebensborn clinics were established in Western Europe – France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and Luxemburg all had one home built.

As part of the Lebensborn programme, the Reich also abducted around 400,000 children ' between 8 and 10 years of age ' from across the occupied countries.

 

ches

LE
( Mods - I had a Search and couldn't find anything more recent than 2011 which might have fitted....Rather than perform yet another Thread revival I thought this worth a fresh look. Feel free to re-direct / shoot me as ye listeth.)


Sparked by the Review by @diverman of Stephen Wynn's ' The 'Shetland Bus ' , I took a look Inside the e-version and was stopped briefly in my tracks by this rather throwaway statement :

Such establishments as the University of Oslo had a number of its senior staff arrested and sent to Bredtveidt [ Norwegian Kz established by Nazi Reichskommisar Terboven] in Oct 1943. Earlier that same year, a group of Jewish people arived in Oslo as prisoners. They were also sent to Bredtveit, where they remained unitl 24 February 1943, when they were placed on a train and sent to Auschwitz Kz in Poland.

What happened to them is unclear, but it is almost certain that they met their deaths in the camp's notorious gas chambers. '


Ref the transport to Auschwitz, unless that is definite there is every chance that they were instead sent to one of the extermination camps instead - Treblinka, Sobibor etc. Records of transports to these camps were very lacking in detail as the prisoners were not registered & tattooed, instead were just fed into the death system within minutes of arrival. |The only records that were taken were numbers of 'live' units on arrival compared to numbers loaded at embarkation.
 

Goatman

ADC
Book Reviewer
yes.

I would still be surprised if the 539 Oslo jews who arrived at Bredtveit in 1943 were not known to one or other of the Holocaust Remembrance organisations.


I've visited Denmark twice - and got on with the Danes,lovely people.

Norway remains on my bucket list.
 

Cold_Collation

LE
Book Reviewer
yes.

I would still be surprised if the 539 Oslo jews who arrived at Bredtveit in 1943 were not known to one or other of the Holocaust Remembrance organisations.


I've visited Denmark twice - and got on with the Danes,lovely people.

Norway remains on my bucket list.
Save your pennies. Beer's very expensive.
 

OneTenner

LE
Book Reviewer
Into the Darkness / De forbandede år is a recent film dealing with the occupation of Denmark, obviously it's 'entertainment' but seems to be reasonably accurate historically.
 

MoleBath

LE
Kit Reviewer
Book Reviewer
Allways liked the Danes
I spent 4 months there when the Sariejevo Olympics were on.
Riding horses out in Copenhagens Shalottenlund every day I kept seeing little well maintained memorials comemmerating where three or four locals had met their death at the hands of the Germans.
They might have forgiven Nelson ,but the Germans ? Probably less so.
Was on exercise there as part of UKMF. Their home guard structure was related to the old resistance framework.Very close links with regular forces and pretty good at knowing their local turf.
 
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