I may be wrong here, but I think today (31 August) is the 65th anniversary of the arrival in Russia of the first arctic convoy. Apart from the threats posed by the Kreigsmarine and Luftwaffe, crews of warships and merchant vessels faced the dangers of operating in a sub zero environment. A man would have little chance of survival in the water. Men spent extended periods closed up at action stations, with little ventilation, no proper cooking, terrible weather and ice forming in mess decks. Unsurprisingly there were health effects, including TB. This is how my Grandfather got TB. Like Bomber Command, the men involved in the convoys to Russia (Army and RAF as well as Royal Navy and Merchant Service) were never issued with a campaign medal. Only recently have the Government decided to award them a clasp for the 1939-1945 medal. They fought a dangerous enemy in the most hostile climatic conditions. Their contribution may be overlooked compared to the Red Army's offensives against the Germans, but without the supply of both raw materials and vehicles, guns, aircraft, torpedo boats and much else could the Soviets have managed to blunt and then stop the German advance?